1. Three groups of anaesthetized dogs were studied to determine the role of renal prostaglandins in glucagon-induced natriuresis.
2. Urine flow, sodium and prostaglandin E excretion rates increased significantly in the experimental kidney with glucagon infusion (0.20 μg/min) into the renal artery. These changes were completely reversed after the administration of either of two inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis.
3. Infusion of glucagon (0.20 μg/min) after the administration of either of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors failed to increase either urine flow rate or sodium excretion above control values and failed to elevate urine prostaglandin E excretion rates.
4. Infusion of glucagon (0.75–1.25 μg/min) resulted in significant elevations in urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urine sodium and prostaglandin E excretion rates.
5. The data presented indicate that the diuresis and natriuresis seen with the infusion of glucagon (0.20 μg/min) are accompanied by an increase in urine prostaglandin E excretion and are reversed by the administration of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, suggesting that the increased urine flow and sodium excretion rates are dependent on prostaglandin-mediated mechanisms. The administration of glucagon in higher doses appears to be associated with alterations in electrolyte excretion and glomerular filtration rate, which presumably is related to factors other than prostaglandin synthesis and release.