1. In an experimental model of post-renal transplantation hypertension in rats, we studied the effect of a reduction of sodium intake on the development of this type of hypertension.

2. Systolic blood pressure, plasma- renin concentration and renal function were measured regularly in recipients of an allogeneic kidney transplant that had previously undergone active immunological enhancement.

3. Transplant recipients on a normal diet showed a rise in systolic blood pressure during the second week after transplantation. The systolic blood pressure of recipients on a low sodium diet remained normotensive throughout the 15 weeks follow-up period.

4. The plasma renin concentration was low in the hypertensive recipients on a normal diet, as compared with unilaterally nephrectomized controls. Although the plasma renin concentration of recipients on a low sodium diet fell below that of unilaterally nephrectomized controls on a low sodium diet, it was higher than that of recipients on a normal diet.

5. The renal function of transplant recipients was greatly reduced compared with that of control rats. The glomerular filtration rate was reduced to a greater extent than the effective renal plasma flow.

6. In a separate experiment it was revealed that a similar reduction in the glomerular filtration rate of kidneys permanently damaged by temporary ischaemia did not result in an increase in the systolic blood pressure.

7. Survival up to 6 weeks after transplantation was the same for both groups of recipients. Recipients on a low sodium diet, however, showed a better 15 weeks survival, probably owing to the absence of hypertension in this group.

8. The prevention of the development of hypertension by means of a reduction of sodium intake, points to an involvement of sodium retention in this post-transplantation hypertension model.

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