1. The respiratory and cardiovascular effects of capsaicin injection into the superior vena cava and an arm vein were studied in three normal subjects.

2. No changes were seen in tidal volume, inspiratory time or expiratory time after capsaicin injection. Instantaneous heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged.

3. Central and peripheral intravenous injections of capsaicin but not control solution above a threshold of 0.5 μg/kg produced dose-dependent sensations sequentially in the chest, face, rectum and extremities. The chest sensation, a ‘raw, burning’ feeling, occurred 3–4 s after central capsaicin injection. No subject reported feeling breathless. In one subject the maximum tolerable dose of capsaicin (4 μg/kg) produced paroxysmal coughing 3.9 s after a central injection.

4. In two of the subjects capsaicin injection was repeated after inhalation of a 5% bupivacaine aerosol (aerodynamic mass median diameter 4.8, μm), sufficient to block the cough reflex to a 5% citric acid aerosol. Prior inhalation of local anaesthetic aerosol abolished the chest sensation after capsaicin injection; the other sensations were unaffected.

5. This study demonstrates that stimulation of receptors accessible from the pulmonary vascular bed does not evoke the pulmonary chemoreflex in conscious man but can produce coughing. It provides evidence for the existence of a nociceptive system of nerve endings in the lung parenchyma that can be blocked by inhaled local anaesthetic aerosol.

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