1. Serum carnosinase activity was assayed in a group of alcoholic patients with and without histologically proven atrophy of type II skeletal muscle fibres, and in control subjects. No significant activity was detected in muscle biopsy samples or washed erythrocytes.

2. Serum carnosinase activity was significantly lower in chronic alcoholic patients compared with a group of age-matched controls. Alcoholics with abnormal muscle biopsies had significantly lower enzyme activities than either those patients with normal muscle biopsies or the controls. Serum enzyme activities in patients with normal muscle biopsies were not significantly different from controls.

3. Serum carnosinase activity was inversely correlated with the degree of muscle atrophy as measured by the type II fibre atrophy factor. There was a positive correlation between the enzyme activity and skeletal muscle mass as reflected by the creatinine-height index. Furthermore, the enzyme activity significantly increased, with resolution or improvement in the myopathy, in patients who abstained from alcohol.

4. Kinetic studies showed that the reduced carnosinase activity was due mainly to a decrease in the apparent Vmax. The apparent Km was significantly higher in the myopathic compared with non-myopathic alcoholics. Mixing serum from controls and patients with myopathy gave the expected values, indicating the absence of a serum enzyme inhibitory factor. Acute alcohol loading had no effect on the serum carnosinase activity.

5. The decrease in serum carnosinase activity in alcoholics was not related to the severity of their liver disease. Assays of serum carnosinase in chronic alcoholics can thus be used as a marker of their associated myopathy.

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