1. We have recently shown that ouabain, an inhibitor of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase, causes contraction of bovine and human airways in vitro, and that amiloride causes relaxation and inhibits receptor-operated contraction in bovine trachealis.

2. To determine whether such drugs alter bronchial reactivity in vivo, we have studied the effect of oral digoxin (an inhibitor of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase) and oral and inhaled amiloride on bronchial reactivity to histamine in three double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

3. Histamine reactivity was measured as the provocative dose causing a 20% reduction in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (PD20FEV1) or, when normal subjects were included, the provocative dose causing a 35% reduction in the specific airways conductance (PD35sGaw); the results are given as geometric mean values.

4. In study 1, 13 atopic asthmatic subjects were given 20 mg of oral amiloride or placebo on separate days. Two hours after the drug, the geometric mean PD20FEV1 for histamine was 0.43 μmol after amiloride and 0.54 μmol after placebo (95% confidence intervals for the difference: 0.9 to −0.2 doubling doses of histamine; P = 0.2).

5. In study 2, six normal and 24 atopic asthmatic men inhaled 10 ml of 10−2 mol/l amiloride or diluent control in a crossover study. The mean values of PD35sGaw for histamine immediately after inhalation of amiloride and placebo were 3.0 μmol and 4.3 μmol, respectively, in the normal subjects (95% confidence intervals for the difference: −0.53 to 1.52 doubling doses, P = 0.2), and 0.33 μmol and 0.29 μmol in the asthmatic subjects (95% confidence intervals for the difference: −0.95 to 0.57 doubling doses; P = 0.6).

6. In study 3, 24 atopic asthmatic men were treated for 7 days with placebo or oral digoxin (1.5 mg loading dose plus 0.25 mg twice daily for 6 days). The PD20FEV1 for histamine was measured before, 12 h after the loading dose and on day 7 of treatment. The change in PD20FEV1 did not differ significantly after digoxin and placebo, after either 1 day's treatment [mean (95% confidence intervals) difference: 0.56 doubling dose (−0.37 to 1.5 doubling dose)] or 7 day's treatment [mean (95% confidence intervals) difference: 0.3 doubling dose (−1.23 to 1.8 doubling doses)].

7. Although our work in vitro has suggested that membrane sodium transport may play an important role in determining airway smooth muscle contractility, we have been unable to demonstrate any effect of the sodium-transport inhibitors amiloride and digoxin on histamine reactivity in these studies.

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