1. The hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green was measured directly by trans-hepatic catheterization in 14 outbred swine (eight well-fed, six malnourished). A specific two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the arterial Indocyanine Green concentration-time data and used to estimate the hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green.
2. The specific two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was modified to represent more accurately the physiological process of Indocyanine Green removal. Simulations were performed using this new model to estimate the hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green in the swine.
3. Similarly to previous findings, our data showed that the original model consistently overestimated the hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green (i.e. the model estimate was compared with the true, directly measured value).
4. The comparison of the modified model and the original model clearly indicates the reason for the overprediction of the hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green by the latter. The simulations using the new model indicate that the percentage of binding of Indocyanine Green to its transport protein (glutathione S-transferase) for removal in the bile will affect the estimation of the hepatic extraction ratio of Indocyanine Green. Thus, the amount of Indocyanine Green available for removal is less than that assumed by the original model.