1. The effects of acutely raising blood ketone body levels to those seen after 72 h of starvation were examined in 10 subjects after an overnight fast. Metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio were measured with indirect calorimetry before and during an insulin—glucose clamp. Arteriovenous differences were measured across forearm and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue.
2. In response to the clamp the respiratory exchange ratio rose from 0.82 to 0.83 during 3-hydroxybutyrate infusion and from 0.83 to 0.94 during control (saline) infusion (P < 0.001).
3. Forearm glucose uptake at the end of the clamp was 4.02 ± 0.95 (3-hydroxybutyrate infusion) and 7.09 ± 1.24 mmol min−1 100 ml−1 forearm (saline infusion). Whole body glucose uptake at the end of the clamp was 72.8 ± 7.9 (3-hydroxybutyrate infusion) and 51.0 ± 3.0 (saline infusion) mmol min−1 kg−1 body weight−1.
4. 3-Hydroxybutyrate infusion reduced the baseline abdominal venous—arterialized venous glycerol difference from 84 ± 28 to 25 ± 12 mmol/l and the non-esterified fatty acid difference from 0.60 ± 0.17 to 0.02 ± 0.09 mmol/l (P < 0.05 versus saline infusion).
5. Hyperketonaemia reduces adipose tissue lipolysis and decreases insulin-mediated forearm glucose uptake. Hyperketonaemia appears to prevent insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, but does not reduce insulin-mediated glucose storage.