1. Increasing the concentration of dissolved urate promotes calcium oxalate crystallization in urine from which Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, has almost completely been removed. This study aimed to determine whether the effect of urate could be reduced or abolished by a physiological concentration of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. This was approached in two ways.

2. The effect of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein on calcium oxalate crystallization induced by urate was tested in ultrafiltered (10 kDa) urine samples from 10 healthy men. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to half of each specimen, the urate concentration was increased by the addition of sodium urate solution and crystallization was induced by a standard load of oxalate. The remainder of each urine specimen was used as a control; these specimens were treated with an identical amount of urate solution, but contained no Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein had no effect on the urinary metastable limit or on the deposition of calcium oxalate, but significantly reduced the size of the particles precipitated.

3. The effect of increasing the urate concentration in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein was tested. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (35 mg/l) was added to 10 ultrafiltered urine samples as before, the samples were divided, and the concentration of urate was increased in half of each specimen. Compared with the control to which no urate was added, urate significantly reduced the amount of oxalate required to induce spontaneous calcium oxalate nucleation and increased the median volume and the particle size of the material deposited.

4. It was concluded that, in vivo, (a) hyperuricosuria would encourage the formation of calcium oxalate stones by promoting calcium oxalate crystallization, (b) Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein would not lessen the effect of urate on calcium oxalate nucleation or bulk deposition but would reduce its effect on crystal aggregation; it could therefore reduce the likelihood of stone formation in patients with hyperuricosuria.

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