1. Cardiac chronotropic responses to isoprenaline are reduced with ageing in man. It is unclear whether this is due to reduced cardiac β-adrenergic sensitivity or to age-associated differences in reflex cardiovascular responses to the vasodilatory effects of isoprenaline. Age-associated changes in physical activity are also reported to influence β-adrenergic sensitivity.
2. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of alterations in reflex changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic influences and physical fitness to the age-associated reduction in cardiac chronotropic responses to β-adrenergic agonists.
3. The effect of ‘autonomic blockade’ with atropine (40 μg/kg intravenously) and clonidine (4 μg/kg intravenously) on blood pressure, heart rate and chronotropic responses to intravenous bolus isoprenaline doses was determined in eight healthy young (mean age 21 years), nine healthy elderly (72 years) and 10 endurance-trained elderly (69 years) subjects.
4. Elderly subjects had a reduced increase in heart rate after atropine (young, 49 ± 9 beats/min; elderly, 36 ± 5 beats/min; endurance-trained elderly, 34 ± 12 beats/min; P < 0.01) and did not demonstrate the transient increase in systolic blood pressure after clonidine observed in young subjects (young, 11 ± 10 mmHg; elderly, −12 ± 16 mmHg; endurance-trained elderly, −18 ± 11 mmHg; P < 0.01).
5. Cardiac chronotropic sensitivity to isoprenaline after ‘autonomic blockade’ increased in the young but decreased in the elderly subjects. The isoprenaline dose that increased heart rate by 25 beats/min before and after autonomic blockade' was: young, before 1.6 μg, after 2.8 μg, P < 0.01 (geometric mean, paired test); elderly, before 6.9 μg, after 3.6 μg, P < 0.05; endurance-trained elderly, before 5.9 μg, after 4.0 μg, P < 0.05. Cardiac chronotropic sensitivity to isoprenaline was significantly reduced in elderly compared with young subjects before (P < 0.01) but was similar after (P = 0.09) ‘autonomic blockade’. Chronotropic sensitivity did not differ between healthy and endurance-trained elderly subjects before or after ‘autonomic blockade’.
6. The age-associated reduction in cardiac chronotropic responses to bolus isoprenaline is primarily due to an age-related reduction in the influence of reflex cardiovascular responses on heart rate and not to an age-related reduction in cardiac β-adrenergic sensitivity. Endurance training is not associated with altered β-adrenergic chronotropic sensitivity in the elderly. The transient pressor response to intravenously administered clonidine may be lost in ageing man.