The therapeutic benefit of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is limited by restenosis in 30–40% of patients. The underlying mechanisms are currently not well understood. Besides clinical and angiographic variables, genetic factors may be involved. In the present study, we investigated the associations between the angiotensinogen T174M and M235T, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphisms and restenosis in 511 patients who had undergone successful PTCA (without stenting) and follow-up angiography. Clinical and angiographic variables were also considered as possible predictors of restenosis. Stenosis severity was estimated by visual inspection of the angiograms. Altogether, 160 patients had restenosis, as defined by a greater than 50% reduction in the diameter of the dilated segment at follow-up angiography compared with the findings immediately following angioplasty. There were significantly more carriers of the angiotensinogen 235T allele and more patients with the ACE DD genotype in the restenosis group than in the no restenosis group, but only the angiotensinogen 235T allele (and not the ACE DD genotype) remained significantly associated with restenosis following multifactorial analyses. No differences between the two groups were found with respect to the other gene polymorphisms. Patients who subsequently developed restenosis had a higher degree of stenosis and more severe lesions before PTCA, as well as less residual stenosis immediately after PTCA. We conclude that the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism may be an independent predictor of restenosis after PTCA.

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