1. The rates of entry of noradrenaline to plasma and of removal of noradrenaline from plasma, and plasma noradrenaline concentration, were determined in normal subjects and in patients with essential hypertension. Neuronal uptake of noradrenaline was assessed from the plasma tritiated noradrenaline disappearance curve, after infusion to steady state.

2. Noradrenaline disappearance was biexponential. Rapid removal was dependent on neuronal uptake, being slowed if neuronal noradrenaline uptake was reduced, either by desipramine in normal subjects, or in patients with sympathetic nerve dysfunction (autonomic insufficiency).

3. In 10 of 41 hypertensive patients the t1 1/2 similarly was prolonged, presumptive evidence of a defect in neuronal noradrenaline uptake. Endogenous noradrenaline escaping uptake after release, and spilling over into plasma, and plasma noradrenaline concentration, were increased in these patients.

4. Defective neuronal uptake of noradrenaline, by exposing adrenoreceptors to high local transmitter concentration, may be important in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in some patients.

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