1. Chronic (5 weeks) alcohol-fed and isocaloric glucose pair-fed control rats had similar body weights, liver weights and liver protein contents.

2. Hepatic esterified cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were two- to three-fold higher in alcohol-fed rats than in controls.

3. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates measured in vivo with 3H2O were significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats.

4. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.1.1.34) activity was increased and the apparent Km for 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-CoA was decreased in alcohol-fed rats.

5. Hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (cholesterol acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.26) activity was significantly increased in alcohol-fed rats.

6. These results indicate that there is no direct relationship between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and sterol synthesis in liver of alcohol-fed rats.

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