1. The relationship between erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and changes in blood pH and in oxygen affinity were studied in six patients treated with two dialysis techniques: conventional haemodialysis and ultrafiltration followed by conventional haemodialysis. 2. The decrease in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and increase in pH after conventional haemodialysis may significantly increase the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and consequently result in inadequate oxygenation of tissue. 3. Ultrafiltration followed by conventional haemodialysis, on the contrary, is more beneficial for oxygenation of tissue and post-dialysis symptoms may be reduced.