The present study examined the effects of two highly selective endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonists, ABT-627 (ET A blocker) and A-192621 (ET B blocker), on the systemic and renal haemodynamic effects of ET-1 in normal rats and in rats with experimental congestive heart failure (CHF) produced by aortocaval fistula. Intravenous injection of ET-1 (1.0nmol·kg -1 of body weight) to anaesthetized normal rats produced sustained decreases in renal blood flow (RBF) (assessed by ultrasonic flowmetry) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and significant increases in renal vascular resistance (RVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with ABT-627 (1mg·h -1 ·kg -1 of body weight) abolished the pressor response to ET-1 without affecting the depressor phase, and significantly impaired the renal vasoconstriction. The systemic and renal vasoconstrictive effects of ET-1 in normal rats were significantly augmented by pretreatment with 3.0mg·h -1 ·kg -1 of A-192621. Baseline RBF and GFR in rats with CHF were reduced significantly compared with control rats, whereas RVR was elevated. The hypertensive effect of ET-1 was attenuated in rats with CHF. In the presence of ET A blockade, the pressor response to ET-1 was completely abolished in CHF rats. Furthermore, pretreatment with ABT-627 enhanced the recovery from ET-1- dependent vasoconstriction and remarkably reversed the ET-1-induced hypofiltration. Blockade of ET B receptors in rats with CHF further exposed the exaggerated ET-1-induced renal vasoconstriction. Our data demonstrate that experimental CHF is associated with altered responsiveness to ET A - and ET B -mediated systemic and renal effects of ET-1. Furthermore, in CHF, as in control rats, the ET B -mediated vasodilatory response may serve as an important compensatory counterbalance to the adverse ET A -mediated effects.
1. To determine the sources of dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) in plasma, we measured regional arteriovenous differences, tissue concentrations and urinary excretion of dopa during systemic intravenous infusions of I -[ 3 H]dopa into anaesthetized intact rats and rats pretreated with the sympathetic neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine. 2. In intact rats, large arteriovenous increments in plasma dopa concentrations were noted in the femoral (47%) and adrenal (141%) beds, with a small arterial-portal venous increment (11%), whereas in the kidney there was a substantial (47%) arteriovenous decrement in plasma dopa levels. Skeletal muscle appeared to be a major source of dopa in arterial plasma. 3. Treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine abolished the afferent-efferent increment of plasma dopa concentrations in the femoral bed. The arteriovenous decrement of plasma dopa concentrations in the kidney was preserved, and the arteriovenous increment in the adrenal bed was decreased by about half. Arterial plasma dopa levels fell by 41%. 4. Regional extraction percentages of I -[ 3 H]dopa were used to estimate the clearances and rates of appearance (spillovers) of dopa in plasma. Dopa spillover was detected in the femoral, renal, splanchnic and adrenal beds, with skeletal muscle accounting for about 44% and the kidneys accounting for about 18% of dopa in arterial plasma. Whereas chemical sympathectomy decreased the femoral and renal spillover of dopa by 90% or more, arterial dopa levels and estimated dopa spillover into arterial plasma were decreased by only about 45%. 5. The kidneys accounted for 22% of dopa clearance from arterial plasma. From the renal extraction of I -[ 3 H]dopa and the urinary excretion of [ 3 H]dopamine, it was estimated that 77% of dopa removed in the kidneys was excreted as dopamine in intact animals and 69% was excreted as dopamine in sympathectomized animals. Conversely, about 80% of urinary endogenous dopamine was derived from plasma dopa, regardless of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. 6. The results indicate that endogenous dopa in arterial plasma is derived substantially but not exclusively from sympathetic nerve endings that are destroyed by 6-hydroxydopamine, especially in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Regional dopa spillover therefore probably reflects regional catecholamine biosynthesis. In rats, urinary dopamine is derived mainly from renal decarboxylation of circulating dopa.
1. We measured urinary excretion rates of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) and dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and the spillover rate of dopa into arterial blood during dietary salt loading in conscious Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant rats with intact or denervated kidneys. 2. Dopa spillover was calculated from the steady-state clearance of intravenously infused l -[ 3 H]dopa and arterial levels of endogenous dopa. 3. Daily excretion rates of dopa and dopamine increased by about sixfold during salt loading in both rat strains. Bilateral renal denervation delayed these increases and the natriuretic responses. 4. During dietary salt loading, dopa spillover increased to approximately the same extent as simultaneously measured dopamine excretion. 5. The results suggest that increases in urinary excretion of dopamine during dietary salt loading can be accounted for by increases in the release of dopa into the bloodstream and that the renal nerves contribute to the dopa and dopamine excretory responses.