1. The effect of the sodium content of the diet on the natriuretic activity of an extract from the kidneys was studied in non-expanded and volume-expanded rats. 2. The kidney tissue was homogenized and the supernatant fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25. A single low-molecular-weight fraction eluted after the salt possessed the natriuretic activity and was tested on a rat bioassay. 3. The natriuretic activity of the fraction obtained from the kidneys of non-expanded rats was related to the sodium intake. 4. After an acute extracellular volume expansion, the natriuretic activity obtained from the fraction extracted from the kidneys was much greater than before expansion and was related to the dietary intake of sodium.