1. This paper reports an investigation of the effects of semistarvation and starvation on the kinetics of uptake of an amino acid, l-leucine, and a hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide, Gly-Sar, by rings of everted hamster jejunum and ileum in vitro. The concentration range used was 0·1–100 mmol/l. Total uptake, non-mediated uptake and K t and V max. for mediated influx were estimated. 2. At many concentrations, both semistarvation and starvation caused a decrease in uptake of the peptide and the amino acid. Uptake of the peptide was more severely depressed than that of the amino acid. In control animals, the jejunum was the site of maximal uptake of Gly-Sar, and the ileum the site of maximal uptake of leucine. In semistarved and starved animals, the ileum became the site of maximal uptake of Gly-Sar, as it was for leucine. The effects of semistarvation and starvation on uptake were similar whether this was expressed per unit wt. or per unit length, though they were accentuated when expressed per unit length, since the intestine lost weight per unit length. 3. The main effect of semistarvation and starvation on the kinetics of mediated influx of the amino acid and the peptide was to reduce V max. in both jejunum and ileum. This effect was compatible with a reduction in the number of mediated transport sites for both the amino acid and the peptide. The observation that mediated influx of the peptide was more severely affected than that of the amino acid supports the hypothesis of the independence of the mechanisms for intestinal uptake of peptides and amino acids.
1. This paper describes an investigation of the kinetics of influx of the dipeptide glycylsarcosine and the amino acids glycine and l-leucine into rings of everted hamster small intestine in vitro , in proximal and distal small intestine (jejunum and ileum). Results were expressed per unit wet weight of intestine. 2. At all concentrations studied (0·1–100 mmol/l), influx of glycylsarcosine was more rapid in the jejunum than in the ileum. In contrast, at all concentrations studied, influx of glycine and leucine was more rapid in the ileum than the jejunum. 3. Estimates of the simple diffusion component in total influx were made. This component became increasingly large as the substrate concentration was raised. After correction for simple diffusion, transport of all three substrates conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics in both jejunum and ileum. Values for simple diffusion, apparent K t and V max. are reported. 4. Possibly physiological implications of the results are discussed, and it is pointed out that under experimental conditions similar to our own, simple diffusion is too large a component in total influx to be ignored.
1. Absorption of [ 3 H]glycine and [ 14 C]-glycyl-l-proline at concentrations between 0·5 and 4 mmol/l was studied by perfusion in vivo of rat jejunal and ileal segments. Absorption was defined as net removal of radioisotope from the perfusate. Radioactivity assays and amino acid analyses were performed on perfusates and on mucosal tissue samples obtained from the perfused segments. 2. At the concentrations studied, absorption rates of glycine and glycylproline were proportional to concentration. Ileal rates were approximately 60% of jejunal rates. Glycylproline absorption was slightly faster than glycine absorption and was associated with the appearance in the perfusate of free glycine and proline in the ratio approximately 3:1. Intraluminal hydrolysis was insufficient to account for the amounts of free amino acids found and glycylproline hydrolase activity at the brush border is known to be minimal. 3. Glycylproline absorption apparently occurred by transport of the intact peptide followed by its intracellular hydrolysis. However, more than one-third of absorbed glycine and one-eighth of absorbed proline returned to the lumen as free amino acid. This reflux of glycine and proline was not proportional to their concentrations in the mucosa.