H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), viewed with dread for more than 300 years, is rapidly becoming a ubiquitously present and physiologically relevant signalling molecule. Knowledge of the production and metabolism of H 2 S has spurred interest in delineating its functions both in physiology and pathophysiology of disease. Although its role in blood pressure regulation and interaction with NO is controversial, H 2 S, through its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, has demonstrated significant cardioprotection. As a result, a number of sulfide-donor drugs, including garlic-derived polysulfides, are currently being designed and investigated for the treatment of cardiovascular conditions, specifically myocardial ischaemic disease. However, huge gaps remain in our knowledge about this gasotransmitter. Only by additional studies will we understand more about the role of this intriguing molecule in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.