1. Total body areal bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in eight women before and 10 weeks after a very-low-calorie diet [405 kcal (1701 kJ)/day]. 2. The mean weight loss of 15.6 kg was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in total body bone mineral density from 1.205 ± 0.056 to 1.175 ± 0.058 g/cm 2 (mean ± sd , P < 0.005). 3. After cessation of the diet, weight gradually increased and by 10 months was similar to baseline values. Total body bone mineral density also increased after stopping the diet and mean values obtained 10 months after the diet did not differ significantly from initial values. Throughout the study total body bone mineral density values in all subjects were well within the range reported for normal subjects. 4. These data indicate that diet-induced weight loss is associated with rapid bone loss, subsequent weight gain being accompanied by increases in bone mass. Further studies are required to establish the clinical significance of these findings and, in particular, the skeletal distribution of bone loss.