1. Mice when fed a cholesterol/choline-supplemented diet for 4 weeks developed histologically fatty livers. This lipid overloading was associated with an increase in hepatic concentration of connective tissues. 2. Both histological and biochemical abnormalities regressed on stopping the cholesterol diet for another 4 weeks. With continuing feeding for 24 weeks these abnormalities were sustained. 3. In the absence of available evidence that cholesterol is ‘toxic’ to the liver, it is concluded that lipid loading alone increases hepatic fibrogenesis.
1. The soluble glycoproteins of human bile, gall-bladder mucosa and gall stones have been extracted and hydrolysed, and the monosaccharides analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. 2. Human biliary glycoproteins contained 55–75% of carbohydrate, the major monosaccharide components being galactose, fucose and N -acetylglucosamine, accounting for 70–85% of all the monosaccharides. Mannose, glucose, N -acetylgalactosamine and N -acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) were also present. N -Acetylneuraminic acid was present in large amounts in the gall-bladder mucosa and bile of one ulcerated and markedly inflamed gall bladder. 3. The proportion of monosaccharides in soluble glycoproteins of mucosa and bile were not different in samples from subjects with or without gall stones. 4. Gall stones were analysed for cholesterol, calcium and bilirubin and classified as ‘cholesterol stones’ (7/10) and ‘pigment stones’ (3/10). Both cholesterol and pigment stones contain a variable amount of glycoprotein. The pattern of carbohydrate constituents was similar to that present in the gall-bladder mucosa and bile in the same subject. There was also no major difference between the pattern found in ‘cholesterol’ and ‘pigment’ stones. 5. Evidence and argument are presented suggesting that some glycoprotein is secreted by the gall bladder and incorporated into gall stones. This calls for further work upon the influence of these carbohydrate-rich macromolecules on cholesterol solubilization in mixed micelles.
1. Needle acupuncture was performed at three sites in twenty patients in a clinical attack of bronchial asthma. 2. In all patients the symptoms of bronchoconstriction improved during the attacks when the correct site was stimulated, and in five patients wheezing was abolished. 3. Stimulation at the correct site produced a significant increase in the mean FEV 1·0 (58%) and FVC (29%) but not in maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR; 76%), when compared with the findings before acupuncture, along with a significant fall in the P a,co 2 and an insignificant fall in Pa,o 2 . A mild tachycardia was also observed. 4. After acupuncture a greater improvement in FEV 1·0 , FVC and MMFR was produced by inhalation of isoprenaline. 5. No significant changes in FEV 1·0 , FVC, MMFR, pulse rate or arterial blood gas tensions occurred after acupuncture at control sites. 6. In four of the patients during clinical remission acupuncture was performed before and after histamine aerosol challenge, but there was no effect on either the severity or the duration of the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. 7. It is concluded that acupuncture probably reduced the reflex component of the bronchoconstriction, but failed to influence direct smooth muscle constriction caused by histamine.