Heparan sulfate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan produced by all mammalian cells that plays important roles in physiology and various pathologies. Heparin is a highly sulfated form of HS that is used clinically as an anticoagulant. Heparin and HSs may also have therapeutic benefits for a wide variety of other indications. Cultured mammalian cells produce HS and, through genetic modification, have been used to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway. Recently, metabolic engineering has been used to produce HS from cultured mammalian cells for clinical purposes. This review describes the HS biosynthetic pathway and its manipulation through metabolic engineering to produce bioengineered HSs. We also discuss current challenges and opportunities to advance the field of HS metabolic engineering.
Metabolic engineering of mammalian cells to produce heparan sulfates
Mattheos A.G. Koffas, Robert J. Linhardt, Bryan E. Thacker, Susan T. Sharfstein; Metabolic engineering of mammalian cells to produce heparan sulfates. Emerg Top Life Sci 26 October 2018; 2 (3): 443–452. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/ETLS20180007
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