Gene editing tools are being rapidly developed, accelerating many areas of cell and gene therapy research. Each successive gene editing technology promises increased efficacy, improved specificity, reduced manufacturing cost and design complexity; all of which are currently epitomised by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9) platform. Since its conceptualisation, CRISPR-based gene editing has been applied to existing methodologies and has further allowed the exploration of novel avenues of research. Implementation of CRISPR/Cas9 has been instrumental to recent progress in the treatment of cancer, primary immunodeficiency, and infectious diseases. To this end, T-cell therapies have attempted to harness and redirect antigen recognition function, and through gene editing, broaden T-cell targeting capabilities and enhance their potency. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into emerging applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in T-cell therapies, to briefly address concerns surrounding CRISPR-mediated indel formation, and to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 base editing technologies that hold vast potential for future research and clinical translation.

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