Cell division is one of the most fundamental processes of life, and so far the only known way of how living systems can come into existence at all. Consequently, its reconstitution in any artificial cell system that will have to be built from the bottom-up is a notoriously complex but an important task. In this short review, I discuss several approaches how to realize division of cell-like compartments, from simply relying on the physical principles of destabilization by growth, or applying external forces, to the design of self-assembling and self-organizing machineries that may autonomously accomplish this task in response to external or internal cues.

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