Despite the development of powerful molecular biological techniques and technologies, studies involving research animals remain a key component of discovery biology, and in the discovery and development of new medicines. In 1959, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) were developed to provide a framework to ensure animal research was undertaken as humanely as possible. Sixty years since their inception, the extent to which the 3Rs have been adopted and implemented by the global scientific and medical research communities has unfortunately been slow and patchy. However, this situation is changing rapidly as awareness increases, not only of the 3Rs themselves, but of the impact of animal welfare on the reproducibility, reliability and translatability of data from animal studies.
Portland Press would like to thank Dr Silvia Camporesi (Kings College London) for her input into the initial discussions around some of the concepts covered in this issue of Emerging Topics in Life Sciences, and for securing some of the contributors and content.
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Perspective| October 22 2019
Animal experimentation: implementation and application of the 3Rs
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David I. Lewis; Animal experimentation: implementation and application of the 3Rs. Emerg Top Life Sci 27 November 2019; 3 (6): 675–679. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/ETLS20190061
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