In this age of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) there is an urgent need for novel antimicrobials. One area of recent interest is in developing antimicrobial effector molecules, and even cell-based therapies, based on those of the immune system. In this review, some of the more interesting approaches will be discussed, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, Interferons (IFNs), Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells, Antibodies, Vaccines and the potential role of trained immunity in protection from and/or treatment of infection.

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