Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves the immune system attacking the myelin sheaths surrounding axons and is a major cause of disability in working-age adults. Various approved therapies now provide reasonably good control over MS neuroinflammation, but none have a pronounced impact on the neurodegeneration associated with the disease. One prominent approach to fulfilling the unmet need for neuroprotective therapies, is the search for agents that promote ‘remyelination', namely the generation of new oligodendrocytes that can form replacement myelin sheaths around denuded axons. In this article, I discuss some emerging targets for remyelinating therapies, mainly being pursued by recently formed small companies translating academic findings.

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