Obstructive sleep apnoea–hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disorder characterised by repetitive episodes of the complete or partial collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. This results in cessation (apnoea) or reduction (hypopnoea) of airflow, leading to oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation. An individual's disposition to develop OSAHS depends on the collapsibility of a segment of the upper airway. The degree of collapsibility can be quantified by the balance between occluding or extraluminal pressures of the surrounding tissues. Patients can experience snoring, unrefreshing sleep, witnessed apnoeas, waking with a choking sensation and excessive daytime sleepiness. OSAHS has a broad range of consequences, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive sequelae. Treatment options include lifestyle measures, in particular weight loss, and strategies to maintain upper airway patency overnight, including continuous positive airway pressure, mandibular advancement devices and positional modifiers.

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