The application of metabolomics and lipidomics, as well as more traditional approaches to study metabolism, are providing novel and essential information regarding optimal nutrition for health outcomes. It is widely accepted that diet, nutrition and health outcomes are inherently complex. Multiple metabolites are derived from heterogeneous plant - and animal-based nutrients; food preparation, processing and packaging methods vary resulting in alterations to the biological availability of various carbohydrates, lipids, peptides and micronutrients. Digestion and absorption change within individuals over a lifespan. Minerals and vitamins, such as zinc or vitamin D, affect hundreds of molecular systems that are also subject to influence by other inputs such as hormonal or growth factor control. However, emerging technologies, including metabolomics and lipidomics now allow investigation of the complexity of interactions within a biological system exposed to genomic, dietary,...

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