Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by invading pathogens and also by host cells in response to infection. The origin, composition, and function of EVs made during infection are diverse and provide effective vehicles for localized and broad dissimilation of effector molecules in the infected host. Extracellular pathogens use EVs to communicate with each other by sensing the host environment contributing to social motility, tissue tropism, and persistence of infection. Pathogen-derived EVs can also interact with host cells to influence the adhesive properties of host membranes and to alter immune recognition and response. Intracellular pathogens can affect both the protein and RNA content of EVs produced by infected host cells. Release of pathogen-induced host EVs can affect host immune responses to infection. In this review, we will describe both the biogenesis and content of EVs produced by a number of diverse pathogens. In addition, we will examine the pathogen-induced changes to EVs produced by infected host cells.

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