Exosomes have become an important player in intercellular signaling. These lipid microvesicles can stably transfer miRNA, protein, and other molecules between cells and circulate throughout the body. Exosomes are released by almost all cell types and are present in most if not all biological fluids. The biologically active cargo carried by exosomes can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. Exosomes increasingly are recognized as having an important role in the progression and treatment of cardiac disease states. Injured cardiac cells can release exosomes with important pathological effects on surrounding tissue, in addition to effecting other organs. But of equal interest is the possible benefit(s) conferred by exosomes released from stem cells for use in treatment and possible repair of cardiac damage.

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