Signalling from cell-to-cell is fundamental for determining differentiation and patterning. This communication can occur between adjacent and distant cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-based structures thought to facilitate the long-distance movement of signalling molecules. EVs have recently been found to allow the transport of two major developmental signalling pathways: Hedgehog and Wnt. These signalling molecules undergo crucial post-translational lipid modifications, which anchor them to membranes and impede their free release into the extracellular space. Preparation of these ligands in EVs involves intracellular vesicle sorting in an endocytosis-dependent recycling process before secretion. In the present review, we discuss the most recent advances with regard to EV involvement in developmental signalling at a distance. We focus on the role of the protein complexes involved in EV genesis, and provide a comprehensive perspective of the contribution of these complexes to intracellular vesicle sorting of developmental signals for their extracellular secretion, reception and transduction.
From intra- to extracellular vesicles: extracellular vesicles in developmental signalling
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Philip Stahl, Graça Raposo, Ana-Citlali Gradilla, Eléanor Simon, Gustavo Aguilar, Isabel Guerrero; From intra- to extracellular vesicles: extracellular vesicles in developmental signalling. Essays Biochem 15 May 2018; 62 (2): 215–223. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/EBC20180001
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