Each nucleated cell contains several hundreds of mitochondria, which are unique organelles in being under dual genome control. The mitochondria contain their own DNA, the mtDNA, but most of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, including all the proteins required for replication, transcription, and repair of mtDNA. MtDNA replication is a continuous process that requires coordinated action of several enzymes that are part of the mtDNA replisome. It also requires constant supply of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates(dNTPs) and interaction with other mitochondria for mixing and unifying the mitochondrial compartment. MtDNA maintenance defects are a growing list of disorders caused by defects in nuclear genes involved in different aspects of mtDNA replication. As a result of defects in these genes, mtDNA depletion and/or multiple mtDNA deletions develop in affected tissues resulting in variable manifestations that range from adult-onset mild disease to lethal presentation early in life.

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