Proper regulation of centromeric cohesion is required for faithful chromosome segregation that prevents chromosomal instability. Extensive studies have identified and established the conserved protein Shugoshin (Sgo1/2) as an essential protector for centromeric cohesion. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric cohesion at the molecular level. Targeting of Sgo1 to inner centromeres is required for its proper function of cohesion protection. We therefore discuss about the molecular mechanisms that install Sgo1 onto inner centromeres. At metaphase-to-anaphase transition, Sgo1 at inner centromeres needs to be disabled for the subsequent sister-chromatid segregation. A few recent studies suggest interesting models to explain how it is achieved. These models are discussed as well.