Abstract

Today, persistent and uncontrolled inflammation is appreciated to play a pivotal role in many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome and many other diseases of public health concern (e.g. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and periodontal disease). The ideal response to initial challenge in humans is a self-limited inflammatory response leading to complete resolution. The resolution phase is now widely recognized as a biosynthetically active process, governed by a superfamily of endogenous chemical mediators that stimulate resolution of inflammatory responses, namely specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs). Because resolution is the natural ideal response, the SPMs have gained attention. SPMs are mediators that include ω-6 arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived resolvins, protectins and maresins, cysteinyl-SPMs, as well as n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)-derived SPMs. These novel immunoresolvents, their biosynthetic pathways and receptors have proven to promote resolution of inflammation, clearance of microbes, reduce pain and promote tissue regeneration via specific cellular and molecular mechanisms. As of 17 August, 2020, PubMed.gov reported >1170 publications for resolvins, confirming their potent protective actions from many laboratories worldwide. Since this field is rapidly expanding, we provide a short update of advances within 2–3 years from human and preclinical animal studies, together with the structural–functional elucidation of SPMs and identification of novel SPM receptors. These new discoveries indicate that SPMs, their pathways and receptors could provide a basis for new approaches for treating inflammation-associated diseases and for stimulating tissue regeneration via resolution pharmacology and precision nutrition.

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