Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential components in eukaryotic cell membrane. They take part in the regulation of cell signalling pathways and act as precursors in inflammatory metabolism. Beside these, PUFAs auto-oxidize through free radical initiated mechanism and release key products that have various physiological functions. These products surfaced in the early nineties and were classified as prostaglandin isomers or isoprostanes, neuroprostanes and phytoprostanes. Although these molecules are considered robust biomarkers of oxidative damage in diseases, they also contain biological activities in humans. Conceptual progress in the last 3 years has added more understanding about the importance of these molecules in different fields. In this chapter, a brief overview of the past 30 years and the recent scope of these molecules, including their biological activities, biosynthetic pathways and analytical approaches are discussed.

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