Recent advances in 3D printing (3DP) and tissue engineering approaches enable the potential application of these technologies to vaccine research. Reconstituting the native tissue or cellular microenvironment will be vital for successful evaluation of pathogenicity of viral infection and screening of potential vaccines. Therefore, establishing a reliable in vitro model to study the vaccine efficiency or delivery of viral disease is important. Here, this review summarizes two major ways that tissue engineering and 3DP strategies could contribute to vaccine research: (1) 3D human tissue models to study the response to virus can be served as a testbed for new potential therapeutics. Using 3D tissue platform attempts to explore alternative options to pre-clinical animal research for evaluating vaccine candidates. (2) 3DP technologies can be applied to improve the vaccination strategies which could replace existing vaccine delivery. Controlled antigen release using carriers that are generated with biodegradable biomaterials can further enhance the efficient development of immunity as well as combination of multiple-dose vaccines into a single injection. This mini review discusses the up-to-date report of current 3D tissue/organ models for potential vaccine potency and known bioengineered vaccine delivery systems.

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