Recent advances in biofabrication techniques, including 3D bioprinting, have allowed for the fabrication of cardiac models that are similar to the human heart in terms of their structure (e.g., volumetric scale and anatomy) and function (e.g., contractile and electrical properties). The importance of developing techniques for assessing the characteristics of 3D cardiac substitutes in real time without damaging their structures has also been emphasized. In particular, the heart has two primary mechanisms for transporting blood through the body: contractility and an electrical system based on intra and extracellular calcium ion exchange. This review introduces recent trends in 3D bioprinted cardiac tissues and the measurement of their structural, contractile, and electrical properties in real time. Cardiac models have also been regarded as alternatives to animal models as drug-testing platforms. Thus, perspectives on the convergence of 3D bioprinted cardiac tissues and their assessment for use in drug development are also presented.

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