Perception of non-self molecules known as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Pathogen infections often trigger the release of modified-self molecules, termed damage- or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which modulate MAMP-triggered signaling to shape the frontline of plant immune responses against infections. In the context of advances in identifying MAMPs and DAMPs, cognate receptors, and their signaling, here, we focus on the most recent breakthroughs in understanding the perception and role of non-self and modified-self patterns. We highlight the commonalities and differences of MAMPs from diverse microbes, insects, and parasitic plants, as well as the production and perception of DAMPs upon infections. We discuss the interplay between MAMPs and DAMPs for emerging themes of the mutual potentiation and attenuation of PTI signaling upon MAMP and DAMP perception during infections.

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