Plants host a multipart immune signalling network to ward off pathogens. Pathogen attack upon plant tissues can often lead to an amplified state of (induced) defence against subsequent infections in distal tissues; this is known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The interaction of plants with beneficial microbes of the rhizosphere microbiome can also lead to an induced resistance in above-ground plant tissues, known as induced systemic resistance. Second messengers such as calcium (Ca2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) are necessary for cell-to-cell signal propagation during SAR and show emergent roles in the mediation of other SAR metabolites. These include the lysine-derived signals pipecolic acid (Pip) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP), which are key signalling metabolites in SAR. Emerging evidence additionally pinpoints plant volatiles as modulators of defence signalling within and between plants. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as monoterpenes can promote SAR by functioning through ROS. Furthermore, plant-derived and additionally also microbial VOCs can target both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling pathways in plants and modulate defence against pathogens. In this review, an overview of recent findings in induced defence signalling, with a particular focus on newer signalling molecules and how they integrate into these networks is discussed.

You do not currently have access to this content.