Thioredoxin, glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin systems play central roles in redox regulation, signaling and metabolism in cells. In these systems, reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H are transferred by coupled thiol-disulfide exchange reactions to redoxins which then reduce a wide array of targets. However, the characterization of redoxin activity has been unclear, with redoxins regarded as enzymes in some studies and redox metabolites in others. Consequently, redoxin activities have been quantified by enzyme kinetic parameters in vitro, and redox potentials or redox ratios within cells. By analyzing all the reactions within these systems, computational models showed that many kinetic properties attributed to redoxins were due to system-level effects. Models of cellular redoxin networks have also been used to estimate intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels, analyze redox signaling and couple omic and kinetic data to understand the regulation of these networks in disease. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful complementary tool to traditional redoxin enzyme kinetic and cellular assays that integrates data from a number of sources into a single quantitative framework to accelerate the analysis of redoxin systems.

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