Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an essential enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle that functions in cellular respiration and redox homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that MDH facilitates metabolic plasticity in tumor cells, catalyzing the formation of an oncometabolite, contributing to altered epigenetics, and maintaining redox capacity to support the rewired energy metabolism and biosynthesis that enables cancer progression. This minireview summarizes current findings on the unique supporting roles played by MDH in human cancers and provides an update on targeting MDH in cancer chemotherapy.

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