The transgenic approach has been used in model systems from yeast to mammals to address basic research questions, and to achieve agricultural, pharmaceutical or industrial objectives. In basic research, transgenic organisms have generated novel observations that could not have been obtained otherwise. This chapter concentrates on the use of transgenics in deciphering the operation of the UPS (ubiquitin–proteasome system) in the yeast, plant, nematode, fly, and mouse model systems, and will touch on ways in which transgenic manipulation of the UPS has been exploited for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications.

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