At first, the saprophytic eukaryote Neurospora crassa and the photosynthetic prokaryote Synechococcus elongatus may seem to have little in common. However, in both organisms a circadian clock organizes cellular biochemistry, and each organism lends itself to classical and molecular genetic investigations that have revealed a detailed picture of the molecular basis of circadian rhythmicity. In the present chapter, an overview of the molecular clockwork in each organism will be described, highlighting similarities, differences and some as yet unexplained phenomena.

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