Amyloid fibrils are formed by numerous proteins and peptides that share little sequence homology. The structures formed are highly ordered and extremely stable, being composed of β-sheet structure and stabilized along their length by hydrogen bonding. The fibrils are formed by several protofilaments that wind around one another in rope-like structures, lending further strength and stability to the resulting fibres. The fact that so many proteins and peptides form amyloid structures under suitable conditions, seems to suggest that the sequence of the precursor is unimportant. However, it is now clear that side chains play a central role in forming interactions between several β-sheets to further stabilize and regulate the structures. The primary sequence plays a central role in determining the rate of fibril formation, the stability of the resulting structure to degradation and the final morphology of the fibrils. The side chains regulate the elongation and growth, and also the lateral association of the protofilament and fibrils, having a significant impact on the final architecture.

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