In the CNS (central nervous system), nerve cells communicate by transmitting signals from one to the next across chemical synapses. Electrical signals trigger controlled secretion of neurotransmitter by exocytosis of SV (synaptic vesicles) at the presynaptic site. Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft, activate receptor channels in the receiving neuron at the postsynaptic site, and thereby elicit a new electrical signal. Repetitive stimulation should result in fast depletion of fusion-competent SVs, given their limited number in the presynaptic bouton. Therefore, to support repeated rounds of release, a fast trafficking cycle is required that couples exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis. During this exo-endocytic cycle, a defined stoichiometry of SV proteins has to be preserved, that is, membrane proteins have to be sorted precisely. However, how this sorting is accomplished on a molecular level is poorly understood. In the present chapter we review recent findings regarding the molecular composition of SVs and the mechanisms that sort SV proteins during compensatory endocytosis. We identify self-assembly of SV components and individual cargo recognition by sorting adaptors as major mechanisms for maintenance of the SV protein complement.
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Review Article| February 06 2015
Restoring synaptic vesicles during compensatory endocytosis
Anne Gauthier-Kemper ;
Martin Kahms ;
Jürgen Klingauf 1
Department of Cellular Biophysics, Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics, University of Münster, Robert-Koch-Strasse 31, 48149 Münster, Germany
1To whom correspondence should be addressed (email email@example.com).
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Essays Biochem (2015) 57: 121–134.
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Ingela Parmryd, Anne Gauthier-Kemper, Martin Kahms, Jürgen Klingauf; Restoring synaptic vesicles during compensatory endocytosis. Essays Biochem 15 February 2015; 57 121–134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bse0570121
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