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Keywords: Transcription
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Essays Biochem (2023) 67 (1): 39–47.
Published: 03 March 2023
... for neurons that have weak glutamate-metabolising pathways since expression levels of both GLUL and GLUD1 are low [ 23 , 26 ]. Of note, both Glul and Glud1 expression are low in astrocyte monocultures and are subject to the same neuron-dependent transcriptional induction as Slc1a2 and Slc1a3 (GLT-1 and GLAST...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2021) 65 (6): 887–899.
Published: 26 November 2021
... binding. As a result CD2665 is transcriptionally inactive by its own. ( F ) By releasing corepressor from RAR CD2665 allows the recruitment of coactivator by the RXR subunit, resulting in transcriptional synergy. ( G ) Inverse agonists such as BMS493 can reinforce the interaction between the heterodimer...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2021) 65 (6): 857–866.
Published: 26 November 2021
... ]. Estrogen receptor recruits two SRC-3s and one p300 to form a transcriptionally active complex. Sequential recruitment of CARM1 to the ER/coactivator complex alters p300 conformation and enhances p300 HAT activity as well as CARM1 HMT activity to activate transcription. Androgen receptor recruits one...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2020) 64 (6): 863–866.
Published: 07 December 2020
... has mapped the in vivo RNA structure across mammalian subcellular compartments [ 38 ]. The secondary structure of RNA can also be regulated by RNA modifications, which are often added co-transcriptionally [ 39 , 40 ]. Among the different RNA modifications, N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is one...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2020) 64 (5): 705–719.
Published: 20 April 2020
... linkage between RNAPII and critical DSB repair factors such as the major phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), ATM, ATR and DNA-PK suggests that RNAPII-mediated transcriptionally active chromatin mounts a specialized DSB response, namely transcription-coupled DSB repair (reviewed in [ 33...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2019) 63 (4): 433–456.
Published: 11 October 2019
... the histone proteins and DNA ( Figure 13 ). These epigenetic modifications can affect whether a gene or genomic region is available for transcription or is transcriptionally silenced. Histones are acylated by enzymes which transfer an acetyl functional group to from acetyl-coenzyme A to lysine residues...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2019) 63 (6): 707–715.
Published: 24 September 2019
... understood. Recent work from diverse model systems suggests that 5mC might not always act as a dominant repressive mechanism and that hypermethylated promoters and enhancers can be permissive to transcription in vivo and in vitro . In this review, we discuss the links between 5mC and enhancer activity...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2019) 63 (1): 123–132.
Published: 09 April 2019
... and that they are associated with transcriptionally active genomic regions [ 51–53 ]. The genomics area has seen a large increase in nucleosome mapping studies that combine micrococcal nuclease digestion or chemical cleavage with next-generation sequencing (NGS) [ 54 , 55 ]. These experiments provide detailed information...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2019) 63 (1): 97–107.
Published: 02 April 2019
... have shown that similar to acetylation, many of the alternative acyl marks are found at transcriptionally active regions of the genome. For instance, H3K9 Bhb is enriched at gene promoters in mouse liver tissue [ 82 ], suggesting a role in transcriptional regulation. K Cr , K Bu , K Pr and K Hib...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2019) 63 (1): 157–165.
Published: 02 April 2019
... regulation. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a DNA binding factor capable of regulating not only the 3D genome organization, but also key aspects of gene expression, including transcription activation and repression, RNA splicing, and enhancer/promoter insulation. A growing body of evidence proposes...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2018) 62 (4): 515–524.
Published: 23 August 2018
... G. Albeck ( jgalbeck@ucdavis.edu ) extracellular signal-regulated kinases imaging techniques receptor tyrosine kinases systems biology transcription 05 06 2018 10 08 2018 14 08 2018 © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2013) 54: 113–126.
Published: 30 April 2013
... are in green. An arrow indicates the directionality of active transcription, whereas crossed-out arrows represent transcriptionally silenced alleles. Airn and Evf2 loci are illustrated here and in the genome browser screenshots of Figure 1 . Note that this diagram is not drawn to scale. ( a ) Silencing...
Articles
Essays Biochem (2013) 54: 103–112.
Published: 30 April 2013
... integrated into transcriptionally silent regions of the genome. Assessing levels of pseudogene RNA can be difficult due to close homology with the original gene from which it was copied. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that many pseudogenes are transcribed into RNA, including the pseudogene versions...