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Wenner - Gren International Series Volume 83 

The Formative Years of Scholars

Edited by U. Teichler

Year of publication: 2006 
ISBN: 978-185578-164-1

The stages of scholars careers’ between the first degree and the appointment to professorship (or a similar research position) have undergone profound changes in the recent past in many European countries. The number of doctoral candidates and doctoral awards has increased substantially and more of those with doctorates are becoming professionally active outside the higher education and research sectors. Short-term employment and high selectivity lead to uncertainty about career prospects often even at the age of 40 and create the potential for losing many talented persons to other occupational sectors. Specialization trends in research increases the conflicts between establishing oneself as an expert in a research area and preparing for a broader range of professional options. Increasing international mobility is viewed as either a creative experience or as politically controversial, both widening career opportunities and increasing risks and burdens. This volume contains contributions from a broad range of experts who participated in a symposium held in Stockholm in November 2005 which analysed learning and productive work, career development and external conditions and developments of knowledge systems that affect the various stages of the formative years of scholars.





Per aspera ad astra? The formative years of scholars
Ulrich Teichler

Changes of the knowledge system and their implication for the formative stage of scholars: experiences in the natural sciences
Jens Erik Fenstad

The academic profession in a knowledge society
Peter Scott

A European employment market for researchers: challenges and achievements
Raffaele Liberali

Changing funding modes for junior scholars
Indra Willms-Hoff

Brain drain: what we know and what we do not know
Bernd Wächter

Doctoral education in Europe and North America a comparative analysis
Barbara M. Kehm

The changing nature of doctoral programmes
Janet Metcalfe

The binding and unbinding of academic careers
Jürgen Enders and Marc Kaulisch

The role of co-operation and mobility in the formative years
Gunnar Öquist

What skills and knowledge should a PhD have? Changing preconditions for PhD education and post doc work
Göran Melin and Kerstin Janson

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